The secretion inhibitor monensin is a Na+ ionophore.
Which block glycoprotein secretion.
Monensin isn't only more toxic than brefeldin it has been reports that it also
induces the production of IL-1ß and TNFa by monocytes within 30 minutes. So
experiments with monocytes, macrophages, monocyte derived dendritic cells and
any other monocyte containing population, like PBMC, can't be done with the use
This second inhibitor is brefeldin A, a carboxylated ionophore, that blocks reversibly
the transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmatic reticulum. It is isolated from
Penicillium brefeldianum. The concentration
brefeldin is used at is 10 µg/ml. The advantage of using this inhibitor is the fact
that you can add it to your culture for a maximum of 30 hours.